Results of the 1860 Census
These are the original results of the 1860 United States Census. They show the population of Free and Slave in each State and Territory in the United States. The table is from an original 1861 Harper’s Weekly newspaper. The table also shows the states with growing and decreasing populations since 1790. It also gives some detail on the impact on the House of Representatives in Congress, and makes reference to Slaves counting as 3/5 of a person. The newspaper includes the following article which accompanied this table.
SATURDAY, APRIL 6, 1861.
THE CENSUS OF 1860.
THE Census Tables have at length been completed at Washington. The preceding analysis shows the population of the United States according to the Census of 1850 and that of 1860, together with the Representatives in the 38th Congress, and the losses and gains in each State. The great increase of the past ten years has been in the Western States. The population of Illinois and Wisconsin has doubled ; that of Iowa has nearly trebled; that of Michigan has nearly doubled. The exact increase has been 90 per cent. in Michigan, 101 per cent. in Illinois, 154 per cent. in Wisconsin, 251 per cent. in Iowa. The older Western States have not gained as much ; Ohio shows an increase of 18 per cent. only; Indiana 37 per cent. The Middle States—New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania—have increased 26 per cent. The New England States have only increased 15 per cent., less than the natural increase ; Vermont and New Hampshire have stood still. The border Slave States have increased 28 per cent. in white, and 14 per cent in slave population. The seceded States 33 per cent. in white, and 31 per cent. in slave population. These figures illustrate the gradual migration of our people, North and South, from the old to the new lands.
The second table published above shows how New York has steadily risen to be the first State of the Union, and is followed closely by the other great Central States, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Virginia, which was the first State for the first quarter of a century of our national existence, has now fallen to the fifth place. Massachusetts was second in line at the time the first census was taken, but soon fell, and now occupies the seventh rank. Pennsylvania has held her own better ; she was third in 1790, and is now second. The fourth State, when the first census was taken, was North Carolina, and the seventh South Carolina ; they are now respectively twelfth and eighteenth. Maryland has fallen from the sixth to the seventeenth place ; New Jersey from the ninth to the twentieth ; New Hampshire from the tenth to the twenty-seventh ; Vermont from the eleventh to the twenty-eighth ; Rhode Island from the fourteenth to the twenty-ninth. So the older States are thrust out of their original rank by their younger, more fertile, and more thriving sisters.
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